Anthony Rawlings

of St. Mary's County, Maryland, 1638



Cool Flash Graphic!
-Ship arriving at Maryland Shore-
(from MPT)


Anthony Rawlings
-After the Raids-
(1647- )


-Historical Chronology-
1600 - 1699


Maryland, 1638: Anthony Rawlings a freeman of St. George’sHundred

The Enormous Offences Act of 1638

February 21, 1638/9. (Assembly) John Courtis, David Wickliff, Hutton Corbett, Thomas Hebden, Anthony Rawlins, Randell Rebell, Roger Moy, Henry Lee, John Hill, Richard Nevill, Andrew Chappel, Edward Parker, William Nausin, Isaac Edwards, Thomas Maurice, James Courtney, William Broughe, Richard Cole, John Prettiman, Ralph Beane chose for their Burgesses of the hundred of Saint George during this next Assembly David Wickliff to do and Conclude in their names as a Burgess may or ought to do. the mark of Anthony + Rawlins;

1639: Report of Thomas Gerard, Administrator of the Justinian Snow Estate:payment to Anthony Rawlings won in a judgement against the Justinian Snow estate: The Accompt of Thomas Gerard gent, of his Adm. of the estate of Justinian Snow late of St maries gent deceased. 21. march 1639. (Provincial Court Proceedings) It:  paid to Anthony Rawlins vpon a iudgemt 1 c. wt tob: 3. bbrels come; 1. axe 12. hoes, valued at 0300.

In these records you may find the key to the mysteries of the past

Anthony Rawlings had been a servant of Justinian Snow (LP Vol. ABH p.15- Bockmiller) up until this time. Justinian Snow died at sea on his return to Maryland from England, news of his death appearing in the records on March 9, 1638. He first appears in the Maryland records in 1637, so this is probably when Anthony Rawlings came to Maryland. It is believed that he took residence at his brother's patent, "Snow Hill Manor". He was a protestant and the Jesuits were hostile toward him, perhaps also because they were jealous of their relationship w/ the Indians, not only for evangelical reasons, but they plotted against Calvert to gain their lands. Proprietr v. Henry Ffleet (1637) reveals that Justinian Snow had been the Factor for a group of investors/"Adventurers" involved in trading w/ the Indians for Beaver skins that included the Proprieter as early as 1624. The inventory at his death indicates that he was still involved in trading w/ the indians for furs. (Anthony Rawlings is not listed among the servants in SnowÍs estate.)George Calvert had visited Virginia after his Newfoundland colony was found to be too cold, and Justinian Snow may have also been in Virginia at that time. It is unknown whether Anthony Rawlings was transported by Snow from England or Virginia.

Anthony Rawlings served in Maryland as servant to Justinian Snow, until 1638, appearing as a freeman of St. Georges Hundred, in 1638. Sometime after that, Anthony Rawlings entered service to Richard Coxe, ending that service in 1642, when he appears in the records as a freeman of St. Georges Hundred, with an unidentified John Rawlings, who resides with Anthony, and is taxed an identical amount. Rawlings must have left Maryland sometime after September 1642, but returned with a wife and child in 1645, because he gets credit for two transports of himself, the first and the second time, as well as transport of his wife and one child, presumably Joan Rawlings, and son John Rawlings. This would mean that he was married c. 1643-4, and son John’s birthday would likewise be between 1643 and 1645. The assignment to him of Capt. John Price’s 50 acre entitlement may indicate a relationship or a debt. Thomas Passmore assigned 100 acres to Anthony Rawlings, not mentioned in the 1648 record which is key to this extrapolation. (1645 seems like an odd time to return to Maryland, as it seems most were fleeing due to Ingles raids at that time.)

1642: Anthony Rawlings member of second jury called by Governor Calvert in case of colonists’
         Murder of Indian King of Yowocomoco, and returns verdict of manslaughter

Leonard Calvert
(ca. 1606-1647)
And the Jury returned, not guilty, but explaining themselves that they delivered that verdict because they vnderstood the last not to have beene committed agst his Lops peace or the kings, because the party was a pagan, & because they had no president in the neighbour colony of virginea, to make such facts murther &c. the Govr satisfied them that those Indians were in the peace of the king & his Lop & that they ought not to take notice of what other colonies did, but of the Law of England, &c. and therevpon dismissed them to consider better of it.

And then they returned, that they found him guilty of rnurther in his owne defence. and being told that this implied a contradiction they returned to consider better of it: and then they returned for their verdict, that they found that he killed the Indian in his owne defence.

And the Govr willed that the verdict be not entred as a verdict, but that another Jury be charged to enquire & try by the same evidence.

Leonard Calvert, (ca. 1606-1647) 1st Colonial Governor.

January, 1642: John Elkins, Planter, John Robinson, Barber, and Miles Riccards are charged with the Murder of the Indian King

January 23:  warrant to Tho: hebden to bring afore the Govr Jo: Robinson barbr, John Elkin, and miles Riccards to satisfie him of the reasons why they killed the Indian king of yowocomoco

February 1: Sedent Vt supr. The Sheriff returned for the grand Enquest, mr Gerard,     John Robinson carpr,    richard hills,  mr Greene     Simon Richardson,   Thomas yewell,   mr ffennick,   francis Posie,     Robt Smith,   mr hollis     henry Brooks     John nevill.   who were all sworne

Then the said Enquest was charged wth this Bill: Let it be enquired for Or Sovenaigne Lord the King and the  Lord Proprietary of this Province if on the two and twentieth day of this instant month of ffebruary, at an Indian quarter in  the woods neare St Georges creek in St George's hundred, vpon a certaine Indian commonly called the king of Yowocomoco, in the said quarter, in the peace of our said Lord the king, and his said Lopp then and there being, John Elkin planter, John Robinson barber and miles Ricards (servant of the said John Robinson) on the day aforesaid at the place aforesaid, not  having God before their eies, but seduced & moved by the instigation of the divell, of malice forethought, feloniously and wickedly, with force & armes, an assault did make, and the said John Elkin, one gonne, wch the said John Elkin did then & there hold in his hands, did shoote off and discharge at or vpon the said Indian, and therewith vnto the said Indian, one mortall wound, in the throat of the said Indian, did give, of wch said mortall wound, the said Indian king, at the said time & place, anon after died; and so the said Indian king at the time & place aforesaid, in manner and forme aforesaid, the said John Elkin feloniously did kill and murther, contrary to the peace of Or Soveraigne Lord the king, his crowne & dignity, and contrary to the peace of the Lord Proprietary, his domination, & dignity.

    And if the said John Robinson and miles Ricards, at the time aforesaid, at the place aforesaid, vnto the felony and murther aforesaid, in manner & forme aforesaid, were present, and aiding, abetting, comforting, or meinteining the said John Elkin, in and to the doing & committing of it.

    And they returned, Billa Vera.

    warrant to sheriff to warne 1 2. freemen, of St Georges hundred as many as he may, to be at Court on ffriday next at one clock after dinner to trie in such causes as shalbe given...

February 6, 1642: First Jury returns not-guilty verdict, despite CalvertÕs instructions regarding the law

called to the barre John Elkin, who held vp his hand, & was arraigned of the felony & murther wherof he was indicted, to his arraignmt he pleaded not guilty & for triall putt himselfe vpon God & his country.

Then the sheriff returned his writt, & were impanelled sworne (the prisoner making no challenge to any of them.)  david whitcliff, robert Kedger, Robt nicolls,  Joseph Edl, George Pye, William Asiter. william hardige, John half head, Arthur le hay, xpofer Carnoll, william hookins, Gerrard fford.

And his Lops Attorny gave in evidence the examination of John Elkin, signed wth his owne hand, wherin he confessed that he killed the Indian, & related the manner of it. and he confessed the said examinaon to be true, & that it was signed by his owne hand.

    And the Jury returned, not guilty,....(see above)...but that another Jury be charged to enquire & try by  the same evidence.

February 9: the Sheriff returned for his Jury, to trie by the former evidence

Nathaniel Pope  Anthony rawlins,    Robt wiseman,  John Cook    John price,     william Broughe
   Thomas Boys    Simon richardson   mr britton Thomas Todd    John wavill   John hatche
   who were sworne to give true verdict &c.

Then in the presence of the prisoner, the same evidence was given to the said Jury, as had beene given to the former; viz the Confessions of the prisoner, & of John Robinson & Miles  Ricards And the Jury returned for their verdict, that they found him guilty of manslaughter.

February 21, 1643:
William Broughe demandeth of Michael Peasely of york river in virginea 270 l tob, for a trespasse in transporting John Elkin out of the Province since the 2d of decemb 1642. agst  whom the plf had an action entred vpon record.    attachmt retorn 1st June next, wth citaon vpon pill of iudgmt

 Court and Testamentary Business, 1642. pg. 181


         Anne Avery corn plaineth agst Richard Cox, for a slander,  for saying of her, that daniel (the Govrs irish man) had lien wth her 2. moonshiny nights vnder a walnutt tree; to the damage of the plf to the value of 1000 l tob.  warrt to have the body of deft. at Court at 1. clock after dinner.

ffebruary 3th appeared william Cox, & denied that he said the words of slander obiected agst him by Anne Avery; & vpon the testimony of Edward Cottam, that he named daniel the Govrs irishman & described the wallnutt tree to be in the Captaines cow pen; & vpon his owne acknowledgemt that he said she had beene better ilave lien wth an irishman, in the  moon light twice then have stolen his pott, & that he was told she did so by a woman;
  the Court found him to be guilty of a slander, & adiudged that he should publiqueiy ask her forgivenes in Court & acknowledge that he hath wronged her therin & should pay to  her in reparation of her fame 1000 l tob & should be imprisond  in irons till he pforme this iudgernt

July 1642: Anthony Rawlings and John at Anthony Rawlings residents of St. Michael’s Hundred

In 1642, most of the settlers were still located within a few miles of the original landing site and were divided into three administrative units known as "hundreds": St. Michaels, from Point Lookout to St. Inigoes Creek; St. Mary's, on the east bank of St. Mary's River, north of St. Michaels; and St. George's, on the west bank of St. Mary's River. Others had moved farther away, near the Patuxent and Wicomico rivers and were organized into St. Clement's Hundred, between St. Mary's Hundred and the Wicomico River and Mattapanie Hundred on the Patuxent River (Pogue 1983). Of the five "hundreds" in the county, St. Michaels, which included St. Inigoes Neck, was the most populous with 120 occupants; however, St. Mary's Hundred, which included the fledgling town of St. Mary's, was the most densely settled. By 1642, 13 tracts of land had been surveyed in the town and 12 households were settled in the general area (Menard and Carr 1982:193). Southern Maryland On Line

July--August 1642. (Assembly Proceedings)

And the sum of 750l was assessed upon the hundred for the payment of the said hundred and charge & hazard of collecting it and it was assessed to be Levied of the Persons and after the rate following vizt

  John Langford and Thomas Sterman Burgesses of Saint Michaels hundred demand to be allowed
Clerk                 190
Common charge of Drummer     Mr Neale             90
 ....     John at An Rawlins    . .. . 23             
.... Anth: Rawlins                        23

This John at An Rawlins   may very well be the John Rawlings who appears in the records as having been transported to Virginia by Richard Gregson of Elizabeth City Co., Va. A connection between Richard Gregson and Anthony Rawlings is proven in testimony of Robert Robins in Md. Provincial Court, June 2, 1649. He testifies that “in September 1647 hee being at the House of Richard Grigson at the back River in Virginia informed the said Grigson that this deponent was then shortly to come to Maryland who therevppon tould this depont that hee had then a Heifer in his Penne belonging vnto one Anthony Rawlins of Maryland, and requested him this depon to goe with him to the said Penne and this depont accordingly went with the said Grigson hither where hee then shewed this depont black Heifer with a white Starr in her forehead and tendred the said Heifer for the said Rawlins his vse and desired this depont to certify the said Rawlins of such his tender, and that the said Heifer was there ready for him or Words to that effect. Robins made this Oath vppon Surnons” In the June 1990 RFHA Newsletter, Joan Scott of Xenia Ohio published a list of Rawlings who were transported into Virginia, including: “JOHN RAWLINGS, 1642, by Richard Greqson,Elizabeth City Co.”

The record is abstracted in Cavaliers and Pioneers:

RICHARD GREGSON, 400 acres Eliz. Cittie Co., Dec. 8, 1642, Page 776. Beg. atthe path leading from Nutmeg Quarter unto the Poquoson, adj. lands of TobyeSmith and William Hampton. Trans. of 8 pers: John White, Richard Long, JohnRawlings, Michaell Clarke, Robert Powell, Edward Cole, Edward Williams.(Cavaliers and Pioneers-- Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants1623-1666, Nell Marion Nugent, Baltimore, Baltimore GeneoaogicalPublihsing Co, Inc. 1983.)

Ron points out that “There is an early Maryland Edward Williams who had a son Edward, Jr. (> 1665,<1711) who married Philadelphia Start. Her mother, also Philadelphia, was first married to John Rawlings (c1640, c1680) son of Anthony Rawlings, I (<1625, 1652).”

An Anthony Rawlings plat in St. Michaels Hundred -1648 (See Map to locate):
Osbeston, william
Osbeston's Oak 9 50 1658
Paine, Thomas
Paine's Range 12 50 1667
Pheypo, Mark
Cornelius' Swamp 13 100 1668
Pheypo, Mark
Pheypo's Fort 11 100 1658
Rawlings, Anthony White Birch Freehold 7 100 1648 (Looks like it was located on present-day Wynne, Maryland)
Smith, Henry Smith's Rest 17 100 1694

August, 1642: Anthony Rawlings acknowledgement of debt to Lewger:

Copie of a Recognisance 14. August 1642 : Accompted this day wth mr Lewger, and I remainc debtor to him twelve hundred and fifty Wt of tobacco & cask. ffor security wherof I doe hereby make over to him all my cropp of tobacco  now being vpon the ground, to the vse of the said mr Lewger  vntill the said debt be p[d] & afterward to my vse. And vpon the paymt of twelve hundred, mr Lewger promises to forgive the odd fifty.
mark A of Anthony Rawlins

1642: Anthony Rawlings sues (blacksmith/murderer) John Dandy for unpaid labor:

(Court and Testamentary Business), 1642. Anthony Rawlins demandeth of John dandy one hundred & fifty wt of tob & cask due for a share of a hogg; & sixty eight pounds of tob more for 4 daies work & a halfe about January 1640. warrt to warne the deft to be at Court on dec next to answere, vpon pill of iudgemt

September 1642: Anthony Rawlings fined for not appearing at Assembly
- chose “Capt.Cornwaleys” as his Proxie.

Assembly Proceedings, September 1642.

....All these following amerced 20l tobacco for not appearing by themselves or proxie upon call till they purge their Contempt
... 1  Anthony Rawlins 

....Then the Lieut General adjourn'd the house till the third beating of the drum at 4 of Clock this afternoon.... In the Afternoon.....

.... John Price, Anthony Rawlins, John Hollis Planter,  John Hollis Carp
appeared by their Proxie Capt Cornwaleys

court and Testamentary Business, 1642.  

December 1st : Anthony Rawlins demandeth of John Thatcher three hundred wt of tob due by bangaine for a crop sold to  him by the plf. attachmt in forma consuet retorn 1st february next.

December 2d: 1642:   in a cause of debt betweene Anthony Rawlins phf.   and John dandy deft. for 2181 tob, vpon the oath of the deft for 150' that he did not owe it, the Secretary ad iudged, that the plf should recover 681 tob.

(Court and Testamentary Business), 1642.                
December 2d : Anthony Rawlins demandeth of Thomas ifranclin & Peter macrill 500 l tob for satisfaction of damage for  taking away the plfs boate from Jo. half hides landing place.  sumons to defts to answere on monday next.

NOTE: John Halfhead of St. Mary’s d. 6 January, 1678/9, accidentally Killed by a fallen tree. His widow, Jane Halfhead remarried Henry Elliott. His estate was in Chancery Court, at issue: 300 acr0es of Land called “Brushy Neck”

Jo. Robinson demandeth of Anthony Rawlins 500 l tob in restitution of so much paid to the said Anthony for price of  a tenement at the ffort, wch tenemt is taken away from the plf. by the L. G.  sumons to deft to answere retorn monday next.

1643 :

January 16:

Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650 Volume 4, Page 230

warne Rob Smith, John ormsby, Isac Edwards, Tho only, Anth. rawlins, franc. gray & henry James to be at the  Court on thursday next to shew cause why iudgmt should not pceed agst them for the contribution mony wch they pmised vnder their hands to the the meinteining of the garrison at ffort conquest. wherof that they faile not at their pill of iudgmt to pceed. And then returne

Volume 4, Page 249
Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650
Court and Testamentary Business, 1643.

feb. 27. 1643. Exeq: vers. Anth. rawlins p 100 l tob, & sher. fee & siliter v. Rob. Smith retorn without delay.

Giles Brent appeared to prosequute agst Anthony Rawlins & Robt Smith for the contribution mony, & the sheriff returnd them served, & were called 3. times & not appearing, & it being found past nine of the clock, the Judge found them in  default, & admitted the plf to prove, & adiudged that Anth. rawlins for him & his house should pay 100 l tob. & Robt Smith 100 l tob.

Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650
Volume 4, Page 275: Court and Testamentary Business, 1644.

On May 3, 1644 Giles Brent, Esq and John Lewger, Esq. , Commissioners of the Treasury, and Will Brainthwt, Gent., present the 1643 Account of his Lops Cattle and Corn. In the credit portion of the account, they note one cow “omitted in last acct remain at Anth. Rawlins”.

Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650
Volume 4, Page 307   
Court and Testamentary Business, 1644.
1 2. febr

william Broughe demandeth of Anthony Rawlins, 450 l tob due by accot
warn: to Cort 1st march 10cl morn, sub piculo

February 1644/5, to May, 1647: Maryland Records are lost, probably due to Ingle’s raids.

Carr:“Richard Ingle was a Protestant ship captain who had been trading for tobacco in Maryland and Virginia since 1642. In 1644, while Governor Leonard Calvert was in England, Ingle had a falling-out with Acting Governor Giles Brent, who inadvisably arrested him briefly for treason against King Charles I, by then literally at war with Parliament. Ingle escaped trial, but early in the following year, he appeared in the Chesapeake armed with letters of marque from Parliament that allowed him to seize ships or goods belonging to supporters of the king. He may not have left England planning a raid on Maryland, but in Virginia he was told that Leonard Calvert, under a commission from King Charles, was going to seize debts owed to Ingle. At that point, if not before, Ingle began to plan an attack on Maryland, perhaps in collaboration with William Claiborne, who had just made an abortive attempt to reclaim Kent Island. In Virginia Ingle picked up a few men willing to participate in his plans and on February 14, 1645, he surprised the settlement at St. Mary's City.”

“...and in those of Westmoreland and King George counties, Virginia, relieves the matter of muchof its difficulty. We learn from the first of these sources that the original residence of the immigrant ancestor, Andrew Monroe, was in Maryland, where he first commanded a pinnacein the service of Cuthbert Fenwick, general agent for Lord Baltimore. When Richard Ingledeclared for the parliament, Monroe took sides against Lord Baltimore's government, andeventually, like Nathaniel Pope, ancestor of President Washington, Dr. Thomas Gerrard, andother leading Marylanders, fled over the Potomac to a settlement under the Virginia authority,at the mouth of Appomattox Creek, now called Mattox Creek, in Westmoreland county.” --James Monroe; William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 4; 1896

According to the RFHA June 1990 Newsletter, both Nathaniel Pope and Giles Brent transported a Rawlings into Westmoreland County, in or prior to 1654:
RICHARD RAWLINS, 1654, by Nath. Pope, Westmoreland Co.

WALTER RAWLINS, 1654, by Capt. Giles Brent, Westmoreland Co.
From Joan Scott, 1414 Crown Point Ct. Xenia, OH 45385;EARLY VIRGINIA IMMIGRANTS

Anthony Rawlings After the Raids: 1647-/ Rawlings Family of Maryland/
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