Justice John Rawlings of Frederick (now Montgomery) County

Born c. 1705,died 1756

Birthdate derived from following Deposition:

[Frederick County Md. Land Records; Liber B Abstracts, 1752-56; From Microfilm CR 37,500; Md. State Archives. Pub: GenLaw Resources, 9346 Bremerton Way, Gaithersburg, Md. 20879.Page 68:# 781.]

Justices directed examine evidence, to perpetuate the bounds of a tract called “Hope”1 on the east side of the Monocacy, not far from Bennett’s Creek. On April 16, 1754, the Commissioners met on Monocacy Creek, about 1/2 mile below the mouth of Bennetts Creek and took the following depositions:

Gara Davis, aged about 59 years [b.c. 1697] deposeth that about 16 or 17 years ago [c.1738] he came to this place with Mr. Bald [sic] Edmonston, to run this tract, and that Thomas Gittings, dec. told this deponent that the place where this tree now stands was the begining for said tract. Before Thos. Dawson, Wm. Luckett. [note: Gara Davis researcher Susan Buyer posits that 'Bald Edmonston is Archibald Edmonston. Records and Susan's beautiful photos of Sugarloaf and environs: Descendants of Garah Davis]

June 16, 1755, we the commissioners, met on the East side of Monocacy, about half a mile below the mouth of Bennett’s Creek, and took the following depositions:

#782: John Hunt 2 , aged about 65, [b.c. 1690] after being sworn deposeth that in 1721, he bounded the said beach tree for the beginning tree of a tract taken up for Wm. Black and Wm. Fitch Readman, and showed the tree to Mr. James Stoddart, Junr., who told him it was the beginning tree of a tract of land for Wm. Black and Wm. Fitch Readmon, who had a warrant for 3000 acres. Mr. James Stoddart Junr. came up to resurvey the said tract of land for Richard Bennett Esq.

Mr. John Rawlingsaged about 50, [b. c. 1705] deposeth that about 20 years ago [c. 1735] Mr. John Dickerson deceased, with this deponent came to this tree, that Mr. John Flint had his hand on and information, that he was a chain carrier to said tract of land, called “Hope” that belonged to Richard Bennett, Esq.

Photo of Sugarloaf by Susan Buyer

Land Records of Prince Georges County Md.; 1733-1739

Recorded at Request of John Rawlins, 23 March 1735: 22 Mar 1735; Indenture between Abraham Neibors, planter, and John Rawlins, planter; for 14 obs tract called “The Beginning; bounded by “lost Hatchet” containing 100 acres; /s/ Abraham Neibours 3 (mark); John Beall; Nath. Wickham, Jr.  [ Liber T., page 365.]  The Montgomery County Historical Society has been working on mapping out the original patents and plats, and located this land. One parcel encompassed parts of what is now the National Bureau of Standards and Lake Forrest Mall.

Prince Georges County Court Records:

- Margaret Crass in 1746 and 1748

[Prince George's County Court Record 1743-6, 532; 1747-8, 331; 1748-9, 44]

24 June 1746 p.532: Lord Proprietary Margaret Crass Mulatto Bastardy base born Child Supposed to be a Molatto ... cannot Gainsay but that she is Guilty ... seven years the Mulatto Chid named Fryday4 Born first day of March last be a servant to 31. sold to John Rawlings 5 pounds or 18000 pounds tobacco paying fees present Master of the said Margaret Crass security to deliver. [Court Proceedings, Court Record liber cc, 15, 1743-1744; Proceedings Court Record 1744-1746]

23 August 1748p.331: Present Margaret Crass Servant to John Rawlings for having a Mulato Chid by info of Charles Jones of Potomack Hundred [Liber GG Court Record 1747-1748; Court Record 1747-1748]

22 November 1748p.44 Margaret Crass Bastardy ... Servt to John Rawlings... 5 lashes serve 8 months for trouble [Court Record 1748-1749]

27 June 1749p.247: John Rawlings his recognizance in 20 pounds to deliver up Margaret Crass at the end of her servitude next court

22 August 1749p.8: Kenedy Farrill5 buys Margaret Crass' seven years 1600 pds [Court Record 01749-1750]

28 November 1749 p.63: Petition of John Rawlings for having a Base born child (a Mollatto) never had any satisfaction for the trouble ... rejected. [Ibid- this means, I think, that he wasn't compensated for the care of the servant's child.]

The Maryland Gazette. 1727-1761;

See a 1748 Maryland Gazette

Gov. Samuel Ogle (c. 1694-1752) appointed John Rawlings Justice of the Peace for Frederick County when the county was formed in 1748.

Maryland Gazette Abtracts 1727-1761 by Karen Mauer Green, The Frontier Press, Galveston, 1989

Wednesday, 14 December, 1748:Governor Ogle has apponted the following Justices of the Peace in Frederick County: Nathaniel Wickham, jun., William Griffith, John Rawlings, Thomas Owen, Thomas Cresap, Thomas Batty, Joseph Chaplain, Henry Munday, Thoms Prather, Geroge Gordon, and Joseph Ogle. John Darnall is appointed Clerk of the County, John Thomas is High-Sheriff and Isaac Brook, Surveyor.”

Page 78: Wed. Oct 10, 1750. William Cumming6 , Annapolis, has land for sale in Frederick County, on Senecar Creek near Justice Rawlings’ plantation. Also land in Anne Arundel County, on Elk Ridge, called “Gray’s Bower”, where Philip Waters, a tenant, now lives.

Frederick County Md. Land Records;

Liber B Abstracts, 1748-1752; From Microfilm CR 37,500; Md. State Archives:

Page v.: “Rawlins, John, Justice from March Court 1748/9” [Rice]

Index: Rawlins, Anna Sophia: 68;John:v., 4,6,59,68

Rumney: Mary (Croxall), Nathaniel Rumney: Page 31. re: land, Little Pipe Creek from Croxall mother and brother, signed over to Croxall family member). Croxall mother AAC. Other records indicate Nathaniel Rumney and Edward Rumney (counterfeiter?) also AAC. Mother Joanne Croxall was a Caroll. A Croxall succeeded Onion as Manager of Baltimore Ironworks and is found as confidante and manager in Caroll papers.

Page 68: pg 610-611:Thomas Conn recorded 19 August, 1752, made 23 July, 1752, between John Rawlins of FC, planter, for 78 pounds 10 shillings sterling and 3000 lbs. tob., parcel called “Lost Knife” [now partly Montgomery Village and Lake Forrest Mall] near small branch that runs into the “White Line Branch” a draft of Senca, M&B for 150 acres, signed John Rawlins before Alex. Beall , John Clagett . Anna Sophia, wife of John Rawlins examined apart released dower rights.

Page 4: April 1749 before Jno Rawlins, Thos. Bayley; Page 6: presence of Jno Rawlings, 20 June 1749; Page 59: before Jno Rawlins,  March 1752.

The Persecution of Justice John Rawlings 1755

Frederick County Md. Land Records;

Liber B Abstracts, 1752-56; From Microfilm CR 37,500; Md. State Archives [Pub: GenLaw Resources; 9346 Bremerton Way; Gaithersburg, Md. 20879]

p vii-”Darnall, John, Clerk of Court, Catholic”
Dulaney 1752 sold 144 lots in Frederick Town

Rawlins, John. Justice from March Court 1748/9-1755 (page.ix)

Index: Rawlings: Anna Sophia, 82; Daniel: pages 20, 24; John pages ix, 1, 6, 68, 82.

Page 82: 938-940: John Rawlins of FC, recorded lease 29 Dec. 1755 made Dec. 1755, between John Hepbun , of PGC, lets part of a tract called “Hanover”, M&B given for 125 acres; to hold during the natural lives of him the said John Rawlins , and of Anna Sophia Rawlings, wife to the said John Rawlings, to pay 1st July yearly 5 shillings sterling and 1000 lbs of tobacco, to be paid at the Rock Creek warehouse; and he agrees to plant 100 apple trees, and to fence them, and other covenants; signed John Hepburn before Geo. Stewart, Clement Hill.

Page 6: before John Rawlings, Nathan Magruder5 Feb. 1753.

Page 68: # 781. Justices directed examine evidence, to perpetuate the bounds of a tract called “Hope” .... and took the following depositions: Gara Davis, aged about 59 years....June 16, 1755, we the commissioners, meet on the East side of Monocacy, about half a mile below the mouth of Bennett’s Creek, and took the following depositions:#782: John Hunt 7, aged about 65, [b.c. 1690]....Mr. John Rawlings,  aged about 50, [b. c. 1705]  deposeth that about 20 years ago [c. 1735] Mr. John Dickerson deceased, with this deponent came to this tree, that Mr. John Flint had his han0d on and information, that he was a chain carrier to said tract of land, called “Hope” that belonged to Richard Bennett, Esq.

Daniel Rawlings 8 : pp 20, 24.

Page 20: 249-50: before Daniel Rawlings, 1753.

page 24: 298-9: before Daniel Rawlings, Wm. Thompson, 5 April, 1753.

Frederick County Md. Land Records; Liber F Abstracts, 1756-1761:

Index: Rawlings, Daniel: page 60 ; John, page 8; Richard: page 65 (found instead: “Francis Rawlings by his mark” on this page.)

Page 8:70-71. Samuel Saffran of AAC rec. 7 Oct. 1756 indenture made 7 Aug. 1756 between Benjamin Kelly of FC, for 24 pounds 7 shillings, and 6 current money MD., sells part of tract called “Fellowship” M&B given for 100 acres signed Benja. Kelly before David Lynn9 , Elizabeth Lynn, John Rawlins10 : Eliz. wife of Benjaman Kelly released Dower right.

Page 60: ; 582-583: Daniel Rawlings8 recorded supersedeas 23 Nov. 1758 against Orlando Griffith, John Jacob, and Wm. Norris .

Page 65: 617-619. Joseph Wad rec. deed 15 Dec. 1758, made 6 Sept. 1758 betwween Richar Davall [Duvall?] of AAC plante; for 25 pcm MD sells tract called Two Brothers in FC on Lick Branch of the Potomac, M&B given for 100 acres. Signed Richard Dowell, before Benja Beall, Francis Rawlings by his mark. Receipt . Richard Davell ack. deed, and Eliz. Duvell [Duvall, perhaps?] his wife released dower. AF & duty paid. [I think that this is Exit nine Rt. 70, Washington Co.]

Will of John Rawlings, Justice

From Abstract in “Frederick County Wills” page 117 of unkn. book:
John Rawlins of Frederick Co., weak. Will not dated. To Sophia Rawlins: 2 negroes, James and Moll, and an equal part of my personl estate with my 3 children, John, William, and Elizabeth, with exceptions to follow. To son John: land called Beginning, after his mother’s decease, and a mulatto Friday [son of Margaret Crass] . To son William: land called Lost Hatchet and Hopson’s Choice at his mother’s decease, plus negro girl Clare and mulatto Robinson Crusoe [may be second son of Margaret Crass] . To dau. Mary Hamilton: negro Rose and a breeding mare. To dua. Elizabeth: negroes Pompey and Cloe, bed, cows, cattle, and a pacing mare adn 5lbs. Wife exec. /s/John Rawlins. Wit: James Veatch, Alexander Reed, Jonathan Markland. Proved 10 Sept. 1756 by Veatch and Markland. (pp 95-6)”

Accounts: A#1 folio 180 dtd 8 Oct. 1759
Anna Sophia Rawlings, ex. of John Rawlings
Amount of estate as of Inventory
Payments: Daniel Carroll, Robert Peter on acct. of Archibald Heenderson, Lawrence Owen for use of William Williams; John W---; William Patrick on acct of Robert Patrick; William Leach, Thomas Johnson , Dr. Robert Mitchell, Ninian Beall, Jno Hepburn, John Cary, Elizabeth Robey, Alexander Reed for use of John Lovat, Christopher Lowndes, James Dickson;

The Maryland Gazette. 1727-1761;by Karen Mauer Green, The Frontier Press, Galveston, 1989. Page 271; “ Thursday, 6 August, 1761: John Rawlings,near Great Seneca in Frederick County, has a stray mare at his plantation”

Frederick County Md. Land Records; LiberG&H Abstracts, 1761-1763

Index: Rawlings: Anna Sophia, 24; John: 24, 48.

Page 24: 260-263. John Rawlins rec. 10 Nov. 1761. Made 17 Oct. 1761. Between Anna Sophia Rawlins spinster, for 60 pcm MD, sells tract, 100 acres of land called “The Beginning” beginning at a tract called the “Lost Hatchett”, M&B given for 100 acres: also a tract called “lost Hatchett containing 50 acres on the west side of Muddy Branch, near a tract formerly taken up by James Holmstead, and called the Lost Hatchett, also a tract called “Hopson’s Choyce,, M&B given, near the “lost Hatchett” n west side of Muddy Branch containing 50 acres more or less. Signed Anna Sophia Rawlins before John Darnall, Mary Darnall. Receipt-Ack. AF & duty paid.

Page 48: 5: John Rawlings took up astray. June 1762 before David Lynn.

No Rawlings land transactions are listed in records for Frederick county 1763-1770.

Children of Justice John Rawlings

June 1990 RFHA Bulletin (pdf) (caveat: there is no documentation, and new conflicting evidence, for the assertion that the parents of John Rawlings were John Rawlings and Eleanor Ridgely. They may have been his parents, but that would mean that the birthdate given for John son of John and Eleanor (1718) is unlikely to be correct because Justice John Rawlings was engaged in land transactions in 1735. He certainly couldnÕt be the John Rawlings who gives deposition that he was born c. 1705. No evidence is presented that Justice John Rawlings is the son of John (son of Richard) Rawlings and Eleanor Ridgely


1 “Hope”: “Darnall: Charles, He0nry, William, and even Mary Darnall, in tandem with John Darnall - John Darnallվs family were frequent witnesses to indentures made on Carrollton, and the area around Sugar Loaf Mountain, where John Darnall also owned a plantation tract called “Hope” purchased from Richard Bennett prior to the formation of Frederick County. After 1778 it was s. of the Frederick County line, in Montgomery County. “ FCMLR, 1756-61.

2 Note nem Hunt: Aaron Rawlings Sr. corresp. with Wm. Hunt of London, merchant. (c.1724)

3 An Abraham Neighbors, said to be the ancestor of all southern “Neighbors”, m. Rebecca around 1718, and named a son Isaac. Recorded appearances have him migrating from Philadelphia to Louden County Virginia, where he r. on the Potomac River by 1740. Names of his grandchildren by son Abraham Neighbors might be a clue: “Abraham Neighbors[Jr.] born 1740 in Virginia, moved to Lauren Co., South Carolina, then moved to Tennessee in 1810 and died in 1824, is buried in Franklin Co., Tennessee,... married about 1760 to Eleanor Jane Boyd born 1740/45, they had 11 children: 1) John Neighbors born abt. 1760 2) Abraham Neighbors bo0rn abt. 1762 3) Nathan Neighbors born abt. 1764 4) Samuel Neighbors born abt. 1766 5) Benjamin Neighbors born abt. 1768 6) Lewis Neighbors born abt. 1770 7) Charles Neighbors born abt. 1772 8) Solomon Neighbors born abt. 1774 9) Rebecca Neighbors born abt. 1776 10) Susan Neighbors born abt. 1778 11) Isaac Neighbors born abt. 1790 There were a couple children that died, not sure who or when.”
Son Isaac Neighbors of Abraham Neighbors I also m. a Boyd and migrated to South Carolina . One vivid account has him killed by Tories [see addendum/end notes] A Robert Neighbors of Talbot County is referrenced on Thursday, 28 April 1757; Maryland Gazette. “list of Lette0rs left at the Post Office in Annapolis”.

4 This child appears in the Will of John Rawlings Prob.10 Sept. 1756: “To son John: land called Beginning, after his mother’s decease, and a mulatto Friday”. Other slaves in will: “2 negroes, James and MollИ to wife Sophia Rawlings. To son William: n”negro girl Clare [may indicate relationship w/ John Clare, “son-in-law” of the Daniel Rawlings that d. Jan. 1726/7] and mulatto Robinson Cruso. To dau. mary Hamilton: negro Rose and a breeding mare. “ To Dau. Elizabeth: negroes Pompey and cloe, and a pacing mare.” Exec. s/ John Rawlings & wife Sophia.

5 Kennedy Farrell: bought lot in Bladensburg, 15 Mr 1742. Kennedy Farrell kept the public house where the Frederick County court initially met.Had a [bar tab?] debt at Cleborn Simms, also tavern-owner in estate of Cleborn Simms, June 20, 1750. (Tavern was only licenced on March 10, 1749 in Fred County Court)Dau Ann Farrell m. Samuel Swearingen in 1752. See notes on Kennedy Farrell in end notes.

6 William Cumming is an attorney who often appears in the PG county court records as attorney for people of color or mixed race, trying to obtain their freedom or property.

7 Note nem Hunt: Aaron Rawlings Sr. corresp. with Wm. Hunt of London, merchant. (c.1724)

8A Daniel Rawlings is not listed among the Judges of Frederick County in Rice but his name appears as presiding in Frederick County cases. A Daniel Rawlings, Sr. was among the Commissioners who laid the boundaries for Frederick County, for which he is paid by the Assembly in 1750. There were also controversies that suggest that there was a Rawlings in PG county who was an official, who was suspected of Catholicism, because a Mary Rawlings of PG County is supeanaed to testify re: Jesuit Richard Monineux in 1749. Most of the objections re: Catholism were directed at officials, who were accused of having Catholic wives while claiming to be protestant. Darnall was one of these. At the same time, a (neighbor of John Rawlings) Crabb attempted to have John Rawlings impeached, through the legislature and it is possible that this was related to the anti-Catholic sentiments that were in the fore due to the French, or due to some association of Rawlings w/ Darnall or others. Rawlings wife’s name, Anna Sophia, could be a ref. to the Queen or it could be Catholic. The Daniel Rawlings appearing in the Frederick County, Maryland records may have been Daniel Rawlings son of Aaron Rawlings b. c. 1696, because Frederick was apportioned from Baltimore County, and Daniel son of Aaron r. Baltimore County, at least initially, having received AaronÕs lands there. Two Daniel Rawlings that can be ruled out as presiding in Frederick cases and as commissioner of boundaries would seem to be: 1.Daniel Rawlings d. 1727:[had sons Daniel, Isaac, son-in-law John Clare, daus Anne, and presumably Elizabeth Rawlings Clare. 2. Daniel Rawlings d. 1748: Will probated Jan. 28, 1748/9. (son of 1): He had wife Mary, “now with child”, sons Daniel and John , and daus. Nancy and Margaret and ‘unborn child” . [However, this could be the “Mary Rawlings” who was supeanaed to testify re: Jesuit].

9Linn/Lynn, David (first Grand Jury foreman 1748/9) served as Justice from 1754. [Rice]. An immigrant from Dublin, Ireland, he was a Surveyor, and one of the Commissioners to lay out Georgetown in 1751, served as a Justice through 1775. He was father of John Lynn, who resided in Allegany (now Garrett County.) Papenfuse, II: 558” FCMLR 1756-61. David Lynn's son Captain David Lynn was a very close friend of Col. Moses Rawlings, and a witness to his will. The children of David Lynn and those of Col. Moses Rawlings were also close friends. According to the History of Allegany County (1923) The Lynn family “can be traced back to a commissioned officer who served Charles I and Charles II of England in the wars in Ireland.... The Lynn family was established in Maryland early in the eighteenth century by ... Judge David Lynn, who came from, Dublin, Ireland, and settled at what is now Frederick, in Frederick county, Md. Judge David Lynn held his commission under King George of England. and was one of the twelve judges who, on November 23rd, 1765, decided that before the English Stamp Act would be recognized by the Courts of Maryland they must be officially notified of the passage of that Act. In memory of this courageous stand, which was an act of treason against the English Crown, and said to be one of the first of the various actions against England which resulted in the revolt of the Colonists, a large bronze tablet has been erected in the Courthouse at Frederick by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Three of the sons of Judge David Lynn served in the American Revolutionary Army: David, John and Dr. George Lynn--David as Captain and John as Colonel.    Captain David Lynn... located at Cumberland, Maryland, prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution, and figured very prominently in the early History of this section during and subsequent to the mighty struggle, and was a most distinguished citizen. He built Rose Hill, the old Lynn homestead, in 1801, which fine old mansion is still standing, and it was the third brick house built in Allegany county. Rose Hill was inherited by his son, John Galloway, who built the Potomac or Lynn wharf, above the dam in the Potomac River, below Rose Hill, and operated it for many years for loading coal into canal boats to be transported over the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. Captain David Lynn was one of the charter members of the Order of the American Cincinnati; was one of the founders of Emmanuel Protestant Episcopal Church of Cumberland in 1803, located on the beautiful elevation on Washington street, which ground was donated by him and Col. William Lamar. He also served on the first vestry. This church is built on the site of Fort Cumberland, built in 1755. Captain David Lynn married Mary Galloway of Tulip Hill, Anne Arundel county, Maryland. She gave Rose Hill Cemetery to the Emmanual Church. ”

10 Justice John Rawling’s will probated 9/10/1756.

In Memory of Bill Hurley, author of Our Maryland Heritage

Montgomery County Historical Society